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Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO
2
. When used as a pigment, it is called titanium whitePigment White 6 (PW6), or CI 77891. Generally, it is sourced from ilmeniterutile and anatase. It has a wide range of applications, including paintsunscreen and food coloring. When used as a food coloring, it has E number E171. World production in 2014 exceeded 9 million metric tons. It has been estimated that titanium dioxide is used in two-thirds of all pigments, and the oxide has been valued at $13.2 billion.

Game theory is the study of mathematical models of strategic interaction between rational decision-makers. It has applications in all fields of social science, as well as in logic and computer science. Originally, it addressed zero-sum games, in which one person's gains result in losses for the other participants. Today, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, and is now an umbrella term for the science of logical decision making in humans, animals, and computers.

The International Copper Study Group (ICSG) met in Lisbon, Portugal on 26-27 April 2018. Government delegates and industry

advisors from most of the world’s leading copper producing and using countries met to discuss key issues affecting the global copper

market. In the meeting of the Statistical Committee, the ICSG view of the world balance of refined copper production and use was

developed.

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